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Ganda Baja

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The tribal and Dalit communities in Odisha do offer a unique variety of musical forms very close to their tradition and cultures. Though they have lived a marginalized life all through history and their right to live with dignity has been assaulted at every stage of history, their musical traditions have survived the test of time and have been used and are being used now also by the well-off middle class. Ganda Baja of Western Odisha is one such category of folk musical tradition, which is going through a very challenging time. The Gandas/Doms/Panas/Hadis broadly known as Ganda (a Dalit community) have cultivated for centuries a distinctly different group of musical instruments (DholNissanTassaMuhuri, and Timkidi/Jhumka), which are performed together in festivals of Western Odisha and which also are used as accompanying instruments in group musical and dance programs. Ganda Baja is an essential part of almost all rituals of tribal and Dalit communities in which they propitiate and worship Mother Earth as the sole Provider and Saviour in various forms.

A Ganda Baja troop consists of a minimum of five members having different cultural talents. They are Muhuria (the person who plays the muhuri), Dhulia (the person who plays the dhol), Taslia (the person who plays the tassa), Nisnia (the person who plays the nissan), and Timkidia/ Jhumkia (the person who plays the timkidi/jhumka). However, a six-member troop (with two Nisnias playing two separate Nissans) is considered a sound quorum for the group. The members have learned this art form from their forefathers. They travelled together and performed with them since childhood. The social stigma of Untouchability associated with the community forced the new generation to adopt the artistic livelihood to sustain themselves. So they learn this art form from their family members as a livelihood skill.

Realizing the fact that this unique cultural tradition is facing extinction due to a host of social, economic, and political reasons, and as the young generation is hesitant to practice this form because of its associated ‘caste identity’ we Samadhwani Team feel the necessity to create awareness among the Ganda community regarding the preservation and practice of this rare musical form. This documentary film is part of that campaign.


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ସ୍ଵୟଂପ୍ରଭା ପାଢ଼ୀ, ସମଧ୍ୱନି ପତ୍ରିକାର (ପ୍ରିଣ୍ଟ ଓ ଡିଜିଟାଲ) ସମ୍ପାଦକ, ଜଣେ ଗାୟିକା, ବୃତ୍ତଚିତ୍ର ନିର୍ମାତା, ସଂସ୍କୃତି ଗବେଷିକା. Swayamprava Parhi is a Vocal Artist, Writer, Editor of Samadhwani Cultural Magazine (Print and Digital), Documentary Film Maker, and Cultural Researcher. She is the founder member of “The Samadhwani Cultural Organization” and “The Samadhwani Centre for Cultural Research". She is committed to expanding cultural consciousness as widely as possible by bringing together forms, practices, views, analysis, and research on the cultural life of common people.